Have you ever wondered how every living thing can be classified. What do we call these things that have mass, take space and yet are not breathing?
Matter is anything that has mass and can occupy space.
Matter is everything one can see or not(unseen such as microorganisms). They usually have both physical properties such as colour, odour, taste, texture, solubility, viscosity and hardness and chemical properties like flammability, rusting and decomposition and as a result, can undergo both physical and chemical changes.
Matter can be pure or impure. Pure substances are usually said to be homogenous while impure ones are heterogeneous.
Homogenous means that all its parts age the same throughout. That is, it can’t be separated by any physical means very easily.
Heterogeneous substances can be separated by some separation techniques such as using separating funnel, evaporation, sublimation among others.
The physical properties of matter can be used to determine if a particular substance is pure or otherwise. Some of such properties are the melting points and the boiling points.
How Melting Point Affect Purity of Matter
Consider melting a pure ice cube, we would notice that the ice begins to melt at a range of -1°C to 1°C. This is a very narrow range compared to its normal melting temperature of 0°C.
This indicates that the melted ice is pure.
However, on melting a cube of ice that has been stained with paraffin wax, we notice that the melting point drops beyond normal range by a lot.
How Boiling Point Affect Purity of Matter
In an experiment to determine the boiling point of water, a reasonably pure water was placed in a beaker and boiled on the furnace. It was noted that the water boiled at about 99°C to 101°C. The boiling range for this pure water is narrow and normal.
On the other hand, a small amount if sulphur powder was poured into a beaker of water before boiling, it was observed that the boiling range was very wide and the boiling point of water which should be about 100°C normally was elevated.
States of Matter
Matter usually exists in three major states called; solid, liquid and gas.
An observable difference between all three states is the forces holding them. In solids, there are very strong attractive forces holding them together thereby causing it hard for solid molecules to move freely.
Liquid molecules move easier than solids because they are not as closely held by attractiveforces like solids. But, gaseous particles are very far apart and have very weak attractive forces between them.
An example of a substance that can exist in all three states is water.
The Triple Point
This is the point in which the temperature and pressure at which the 3 phased of a pure substance co-exist with one another. For pure water, its triple point is at about 0.01°C and
Changes in Matter
Matter can undergo both physical and chemical changes.
The physical changes alters the physical states of matter such as its taste, odour, shape and texture. It is usually easy to return matter back to its original state when it undergoes a physical change.
A physical change has little requirements for energy supply and there is no new matter formed.
A chemical change is much more complicated as it alters the initial state of matter and cannot be easily reversible.It has a very high requirements for energy supply and the mass of matter usually increases or decreases, depending on the change undergone.
Alll living things exist as matter and matter can undergo changes which can either be seen and reversible or unseen and irreversible.
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